Primary Source Formats come in all different shapes and sizes and include:
Books, periodicals, newspapers, magazines, maps, art, government documents, visual materials, sound recordings, moving images, manuscripts and archives from individuals and organizations, correspondence in print and electronic formats (email, text messages, and postcards).
Some commonly used terms you should familiarize yourself with when doing your research are:
Archives: records created or received by a person, family, or organization and preserved because of their continuing value inactive records of continuing value the organically created records of continuing value, particularly when the organization itself maintains the records non-record material selected, preserved, managed, presented, and used in the same manner as archives.
Manuscripts: A collection of personal or family papers. Although manuscript literally means handwritten, 'manuscript collection' is often used to include collections of mixed media in which unpublished materials predominate. They may also include typescripts, photographs, diaries, scrapbooks, news clippings, and printed works.
Personal Papers: 1. Records created and originally kept by an individual. 2. Documents unrelated to work but maintained at a place of work by an employee of the United States federal government.
Finding Aids: a description that typically consists of contextual and structural information about an archival resource.
Research involves collecting a diverse range of materials that may include primary, secondary, and tertiary sources.
What does this mean?
Primary Sources are original materials created during a given historical period and represent the ideas, thoughts, and attitudes of individuals, organizations, and government. Original sources record actual experience and are the foundation for scholarly research. Primary sources vary widely by format and definition of a primary source will vary by discipline.
Examples of Primary Sources:
Sources that interpret or present information for general readers. Examples include textbooks, encyclopedia articles, and digital resources such as Wikipedia.
The way in which scholars use primary and Secondary Sources varies greatly. While a book or monograph is generally treated as secondary source, it may have artifactual value, while visual (photographic) materials are frequently treated as documents. Likewise, oral histories and memoirs are treated as primary sources even though the recording or publication takes places many years after the events transpired.
See Robert C. Williams, The Historian's Toolbox: A Student's Guide to the Theory and Craft of History (M.E. Sharpe, 2007)
Keyword searching our finding aids can be effective, but if you're struggling to find materials try asking yourself these questions:
The answers to these questions, especially the names of people and organizations, are often the most effective search terms to use when searching our finding aids. It also works in reverse, so if you're finding too many things you can try combining proper nouns with the keywords you're already using to narrow your search results.
Books in Special Collections & Archives can be found in the same way books in the library's general collection: using OneSearch on the library's home page.
When using OneSearch, you may use the facets on the left frame to:
Limit by Location [Freedom Center, Special Collections] or limit by Local Collection [i.e. collection name]
Sort by Date ['Date-newest' or 'Date-Oldest"] or set a Date Range
Use Collection Titles that appear during your search to find related titles [i.e. Freedom Center or Dwight Strong collection on George Bernard Shaw]
Archival collections on ArchivesSpace are discoverable on OneSearch.
When using OneSearch, use the facets on the left frame to limit the "Resource Type" to University Archives (our collections), select an item or collection, then "Request from University Archives & Special Collections" to see the online finding aid.
Please note: the Resource Type labeled as Archival Materials are items held in other CSU Archives and Special Collections.
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