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Educational Leadership: Citing Your Sources

Subject guide for Educational Leadership

Citing Sources Using APA Style

Researchers in the field of Education typically format their papers and cite their sources using rules found in The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. (2009).  The Pollak Library has created a quick reference guide to citing sources using APA format but, as a graduate student, you'll probably need to consult the manual.  We have copies of the manual behind the reference desk that you can use while you're in the library.

The Harvard Graduate School of Education has produced a series of excellent videos that explain how to format your papers, use in-text citations, and create bibliographies according to the rules of the 6th edition of the style manual.  Click here to visit APA Exposed: Everything You Wanted to Know About APA Format but Were Afraid to Ask.

You may also choose to use EndNote Web, a citation manager or program that will help you organize and format your citations.  You can create a new EndNote Web account or login to an existing account, by using the widget below.

What's a DOI?

A DOI is a Digital Object Identifier.  It is a unique set of letters and numbers for a specific article. The DOI identifies the article and also provides a persistent link to its location on the Internet. 

For example:

Jackson, Y., Kim, K. L., & Delap, C. (2007). Mediators of control beliefs, stressful life events, and adaptive behavior in school age children: The role of appraisal and social support. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(2),147-160. doi:10.1002/jts.20192

If the DOI is available, it is required as part of the citation for a print or electronic articles, according to The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. (2009). If the DOI is not available and a researcher has cited a journal article that has been retrieved electronically, the researcher must add the url of the journal's homepage to the citation. 


Valentino, N. A. (1999). Crime news and the priming of racial attitudes during evaluations of the president. Public Opinion Quarterly, 63(3), 293-320. Retrieved from

Of course, there are some exceptions to this rule and it may be best to consult your copy of the APA Manual or ask to borrow one from the Reference and Research Services Desk.

Would you like more information about DOIs?

Here is a link to the APA's Frequently Asked Questions page on the DOI.