Criminal Justice: Citing

Subject guide for Criminal Justice

How Do I Cite Sources Using APA style

Apa Style GuideThe Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. (2010) A copy is kept at the Reference Desk, 1st floor, Library North.

Official:

  • APA Style Tips and the APA Electronic References provide official examples from the APA. Neither is comprehensive; the print Publication Manual is the only authoritative source of citation rules.

Unofficial:

  • CSUF APA Citation Style (PDF) provides a 2 page overview of some of the most common citation needs.

Sample Citation in APA Format

Citation as it was found in database:
The Effect of Intensive Bail Supervision on Repeat Domestic Violence Offenders.  By Lasley, James, Policy Studies Journal, 2003, Vol. 31 Issue 2, p187-207, 21p, 2 Charts; DOI: 10.1111/1541-0072.00011

Citation now in APA format:
This example is for a print article:
Lasley, J., (2003). The effect of intensive bail supervision on repeat domestic violence offenders.
     Policy Studies Journal,  31(2): 187-207.

This example is for an online article with a DOI number:
Lasley, J., (2003). The effect of intensive bail supervision on repeat domestic violence offenders.
     Policy Studies Journal, 31(2): 187-207. doi: 10.1111/1541-0072.00011

This example is for an online article with no DOI number:
Lasley, J., (2003). The effect of intensive bail supervision on repeat domestic violence offenders.
     Policy Studies Journal, 31(2): 187-207. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com

Notice a few details:

  • The author's name is listed last name, initials.
  • The year is listed directly after the author's name.
  • The title of the article is in lower case, except for the first word and any proper nouns.
  • The name of the journal is in italics.
  • Noitce how the volume and issue are listed.
  • If it is an online article, the citation end with the DOI.  If there is no DOI listed, list the URL.

What is a DOI?

A DOI is a Digital Object Identifier.  It is a unique set of letters and numbers for a specific article. The DOI identifies the article and also provides a persistent link to its location on the Internet. 

For example:
Jackson, Y., Kim, K. L., & Delap, C. (2007). Mediators of control beliefs,
      stressful life events, and adaptive behavior in school age children: The role of
      appraisal and social support. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20(2),147-160.
      doi:10.1002/jts.20192

If the DOI is available, it is required as part of the citation for a print or electronic article, according to The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. (2009). If the DOI is not available and a researcher has cited a journal article that has been retrieved electronically, the researcher must add the url of the journal's homepage to the citation. 

Valentino, N. A. (1999). Crime news and the priming of racial attitudes during
      evaluations of the president. Public Opinion Quarterly, 63(3), 293-320.
      Retrieved from http://poq.oxfordjournals.org

There are some exceptions to this rule and it may be best to consult your copy of the APA Manual or ask to borrow one from the Reference Desk.

Would you like more information about DOIs? Here is a link to the APA's Frequently Asked Questions page on the DOI.